Sunday, June 25, 2023

All the following are side effect of oral contraceptive except.. constipation

All the following are side effect of oral contraceptive except:

  • a- hypertension
  • b-weight gain
  • c- Hyperglycemia
  • d- dizziness
  • e- constipation***

When do we talk about constipation?

Constipation is manifested as difficulty in removing stools that are often small and hard. But no need to go to the saddle necessarily every day. We talk about constipation when we go to the saddle less than three times a week.
Constipation can be caused by a diet that is not high in fiber, lack of exercise, or conditions such as hypothyroidism.
Some medications, like antidepressants, antacids can also cause constipation. If your constipation lasts more than two weeks it is recommended to consult a doctor. It can be a sign of a pathology such as bowel obstruction and in this case, hospitalization is essential.


  • Constipation of transit: hard and rare stools (less than 3 per week), but no difficulty of evacuation.
  • Terminal constipation: a feeling of incomplete or difficult defecation, a feeling of rectal fullness, large or repeated thrusting efforts.
  • Note: In both cases, constipation may be accompanied by bloating, abdominal pain and intestinal discomfort.

People at risk:

  • Women are 3 times more likely to suffer from constipation than men. This high prevalence is explained in part by hormonal causes. One hypothesis is that progesterone, which is more abundant during the second half of the menstrual cycle and during pregnancy, would make the intestines lazy.
  • Children are frequently constipated, with a peak prevalence around the age of 4 years.
  • From the age of 65, the risks increase significantly, for both men and women.
  • People who have to keep the bed or who have little physical activity are also prone to constipation (serious patients, convalescents, accident victims, elderly people).

Risk factors:

  • A diet low in fiber and liquids.
  • Physical inactivity, physical inactivity.
  • Some medicines.
  • Systematically ignore your need to have a bowel movement because of emotional stress or a psychological disorder.
  • Hormonal changes (pregnancy, menopause).
  • The frequency of constipation is 2 times higher among people with low incomes, probably because of poorer nutrition.