Monday, June 5, 2023

Prostaglandins are the most important arachronic acid derivatives .. Prostadyl. Prostaglandins. Alpha Prostol. Telspruit. Prostalin. Dinoprost



Prostaglandins arachronic acid derivatives:


  • Prostadyl (DCI) or (INN) (Prostaglandins E1), a crystalline precostagenin, a biological extract. Used as a holding material. It is also used as a stimulant to release arthroputin from the renal cortex and inhibits blood clots.
  • alpha-Prostol (DCI) or (INN) is a synthetic prostaglandins used to treat the fertility of female horse (Persians).
  • Telsproset (DCI) or (INN) isotopes of prostaglandins with one atom of oxygen and one carbon atom replaced with one nitrogen seed and one sulfur atom with annular structure.
This group includes synthetic products such as Prostalin (DCI), INN, DINOPROST (DCI) or INN, which retain the infrastructure of natural products and have similar physiological activity.


Prostaglandins:

Prostaglandins are a group of substances of a lipid nature derived from the fatty acids of 20 carbons (eicosanoids), which contain a cyclopentane ring and constitute a family of cellular mediators, with diverse, often conflicting effects. Prostaglandins affect and act on different systems of the organism, including the nervous system, the smooth tissue, the blood and the reproductive system; they play an important role in regulating various functions such as blood pressure, blood coagulation, the allergic inflammatory response and the activity of the digestive system.

prostate gland:

The name prostaglandin comes from the prostate gland. When the prostaglandins were first isolated in the seminal fluid in 1935, it was thought to be part of the secretions of the prostate. In 1971, it was discovered that acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) and its derivatives can inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandins. The biochemists Sune Karl Bergström, Bengt Samuelsson and John Robert Vane received the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine in 1982 for their research on prostaglandins.

essential fatty acids:

They are synthesized from essential fatty acids by the action of different enzymes such as cyclooxygenases, lipoxygenases, cytochrome P-450, peroxidases, etc. Cyclooxygenase gives rise to prostaglandins, thromboxane A-II and prostacyclin (PGI2); lipoxygenase gives rise to the acids HPETEs, HETE and leukotrienes; cytochrome P-450 generates HETEs and hepóxidos (EETs). The pathway through which arachidonic acid is metabolized to eicosanoids depends on the tissue, the phospholipase A2, the stimulus, the presence of endogenous and pharmacological inducers or inhibitors, etc.

The role of prostaglandins::

Prostaglandins must exert their effect on the cells of origin and adjacent, acting as autocrine and paracrine hormones, being destroyed in the lungs. The actions are multiple and some have practical utility, such as PGE1, which is used clinically to keep the ductus arteriosus open, in children with congenital heart disease (alprostadil) and for the treatment or prevention of gastroduodenal ulcer (misoprostol). PGE2 (dinoprostone) is used as oxytocin in the induction of labor, the expulsion of the dead fetus and the treatment of hydatidiform mole or spontaneous abortion.

Prostaglandin Functions:

The functions of prostaglandins can be summarized in five points:
  • Involved in the inflammatory response: vasodilation, increased permeability of the tissues allowing the passage of leukocytes, platelet antiaggregant, stimulation of nerve endings of pain, etc.
  • Increase in the secretion of gastric mucus, and decrease in gastric acid secretion.
  • They cause the contraction of the smooth muscles. This is especially important in the woman's uterus. In the human semen there are small amounts of prostaglandins to favor the contraction of the uterus and as a consequence the ascension of the spermatozoa to the uterine tubes (fallopian tubes). In the same way, they are released during menstruation, to favor the detachment of the endometrium. Thus, menstrual pains are often treated with inhibitors of the release of prostaglandins.
  • Intervene in the regulation of body temperature.
  • Control the decrease in blood pressure by promoting the elimination of substances in the kidney.