Thursday, March 23, 2023

Screening examinations in newborns.. Detection of serious and not obvious disorders at birth

Detection of serious disorders not evident at birth:

Many serious disorders that are not obvious at birth can be detected through various screening tests. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment can help reduce or prevent many disorders that may affect the healthy development of an infant.

Some screening tests are done routinely, others are required, and when results of screening tests are positive (pathological), doctors often use other tests.

Types of screening tests for newborns:

Typical screening tests include:
blood tests
Oxygen level tests
Hearing tests

Doctors evaluate all newborns for jaundice (a yellow color of chickenpox due to high levels of bilirubin in the blood), by examining the skin and the whites of the eyes with a skin probe, a blood test, or both.
All hospitals require a number of blood tests in newborns to check for certain inherited metabolic disorders that can be treated.

Tested after birth:

Common tests include tests for phenylketonuria, maple syrup urine disease, galactosemia, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, sickle cell disease, and hypothyroidism.
Some cases require testing for cystic fibrosis or immunodeficiency as well, however, different states require different tests. See a list of routine newborn screenings by state.

Postpartum examination devices:

Doctors place an oxygen sensor (pulse oximetry) on the newborn's right hand and foot to measure oxygen levels. Low oxygen levels or large differences between the hand and foot indicate the possibility of congenital heart disease.

Hearing tests are done to check for hearing loss, which may be associated with certain birth defects or infections.
Doctors use a handheld device that clicks softly and measures echoes outside the baby's eardrum (called evoked otoacoustic emissions testing).