Sunday, April 30, 2023

Birthmarks or spots and rashes on babies

birthmark, a different-looking spot on the baby's skin:

Looking at your new baby and memorizing every little detail is one of the great joys of being a parent. Among the many unique features you might notice is the birthmark, a different-looking spot on the baby's skin that the child was born with or that appears shortly after birth.

There are two main types of birthmarks: pigmented, which are areas of skin that contain extra pigment (color), and vascular, which have extra blood vessels that have not fully formed. Both types of marks are usually harmless and some go away on their own. But some need to be watched to make sure they don't cause problems. Be sure to talk to your pediatrician about any birthmarks or rashes you notice on your baby.

Vascular markings: pink, red and blue:
Pink, red, and blue birthmarks are often made up of extra blood vessels. The extra blood can make some vascular birthmarks feel warm to the touch. Vascular birthmarks can look and behave differently depending on the type of blood vessels they contain. The most common birthmarks with blood vessels include:

Simple nevi: "salmon spot", "angel's kiss" and "stork mark" birthmarks:

Up to 80% of babies are born with simple nevi, which are flat pink or red birthmarks. They are collections of small red blood vessels called capillaries. Often these marks are found on the eyelids, on the forehead, on the back of the neck, on the top of the head, under the nose, and on the lower back. They are sometimes called "salmon spots", "stork marks" (when they are on the back of the neck), and "angel kisses" (when they are between the eyebrows).

Simple nevus birthmarks usually go away on their own by the time your baby is 1 to 3 years old. Do not be alarmed if the birthmark darkens when the baby expresses its emotions more strongly or when he is very active: this is normal.

Most simple nevi are absolutely harmless and do not need treatment. Be sure to talk to your pediatrician if they are large or in unexpected places.

Port wine stains:

Port-Wine StainPort-Wine StainPort-wine stains are fairly common, seen in about 3 out of 1,000 children. They are similar to simple nevi - pink or red flat birthmarks, made up of extra capillaries. They are also visible at birth. But these birthmarks are usually larger than simple nevi and affect more areas of the face and body. Unlike other birthmarks, port-wine stains do not disappear. They grow just like your child grows, but slowly. Over time, they may become darker and thicker.

Port-wine stains are not usually related to any health problem. If the birthmark affects a certain part of the face, such as the eyelid and forehead, it could be related to a condition known as Sturge-Weber syndrome. This condition is rare, but your doctor may recommend further evaluation or testing if your baby is at risk.

Some kids and teens aren't bothered by their port-wine stains, while others may be embarrassed. Laser treatment can be helpful to lighten the birthmark a bit and help prevent darkening and thickening. But, in most cases, the birthmark will not "erase."

Infantile hemangiomas Hemangioma infantile Hemangioma infantile:

These benign growths, which usually appear in the first few weeks of life, are made up of extra blood vessels in the skin. Infantile hemangiomas are quite common, found in up to 5% of babies. They tend to grow fast and then gradually shrink until they disappear. If they form near the surface of the skin, they are red (sometimes called "strawberry marks"). If they're deeper into the skin, they might look blue or purple, like bruises.

Infantile hemangiomas grow fastest during the first 5 to 7 weeks of life, so it's important to talk to your pediatrician about it soon. Some hemangiomas may be associated with certain health problems and require additional tests or treatment. There are now safe treatments for problematic hemangiomas. But these treatments usually work best when started soon after the marks have formed, usually when the baby is about 1 month old. Talk to your pediatrician if you think your baby might have an infantile hemangioma.

Congenital hemangiomas:

Congenital Hemangioma Congenital hemangiomas are present from birth. Sometimes they can be seen on prenatal ultrasound exams. They are different from childhood bruises and much less common. This type of hemangioma does not grow after the baby is born. A congenital hemangioma usually looks like a round or oval, tumor-like growth or lesion. They tend to be purple or blue, but may also have small red blood vessels on the surface and a white ring around the base.

Some of these birthmarks begin to fade quickly (the type called rapidly involuting congenital hemangioma). There is another type of congenital hemangioma, the non-involuting one, which does not disappear. In most cases, congenital hemangiomas are not dangerous and do not need treatment. If the birthmark doesn't go away, it can be removed with surgery or other treatments when the child is older.

Venous malformation:

Venous Malformation Venous Malformation Venous malformations are a tangle of veins in the skin that did not form correctly during development. Veins give these birthmarks a blue or purple color. They are present at birth but do not become apparent until adolescence. Veins can become enlarged with activity or certain positions, causing pain. Venous malformations are rare; they affect about 2 in 10,000 children.

These birthmarks may not cause any problems. But treatment will be needed if they cause pain or affect your child's activities. Sometimes small clots called phleboliths form in the veins. In most cases, these clots are harmless, but they can be hard and painful. Treatment options may include compression garments, medications, surgery, or procedures.

Most venous malformations are found only in the skin, but sometimes they are also found in the muscles, bones, or organs. Your doctor may order an ultrasound to learn more about your child's birthmark.