Wednesday, February 21, 2024

Insulin patch Insulin patch.. Passage of insulin through the openings in the skin micro circulatory

Insulin patches:

Insulin patches are a potential new way to deliver insulin for people with diabetes. They work by releasing insulin through tiny needles or microneedles into the skin, where it enters the bloodstream. The insulin then travels through the microcirculation, a network of small blood vessels, to reach the cells that need it.

Passage of Insulin:

Here's a closer look at the passage of insulin through the skin and microcirculation:

1. Penetration through the skin:

  • The insulin patch contains microneedles made of materials like dissolvable polymers or sugar.
  • When applied to the skin, the microneedles painlessly pierce the outer layer of skin (stratum corneum).
  • Insulin is released from the patch and enters the interstitial fluid, the space between skin cells.

2. Absorption into the microcirculation:

  • The insulin then diffuses through the interstitial fluid and reaches the blood vessels of the microcirculation.
  • These blood vessels are small and have thin walls, allowing insulin to pass through easily.
  • The insulin enters the bloodstream and travels to the liver, muscles, and other tissues where it is needed.

3. Factors affecting absorption:

The rate and extent of insulin absorption can be affected by several factors, including:
  • The size and number of microneedles in the patch.
  • The depth of microneedle penetration.
  • The properties of the insulin formulation.
  • Blood flow at the application site.
  • Skin characteristics, such as thickness and hydration.

4. Advantages of insulin patches:

Insulin patches offer several potential advantages over traditional injections, such as:
  • Painless and convenient administration.
  • Improved adherence to treatment regimens.
  • Reduced risk of skin infections and lipohypertrophy (thickening of skin tissue).
  • The ability to deliver insulin more slowly and steadily, potentially leading to better blood sugar control.

5. Challenges and limitations:

Insulin patches are still under development and there are some challenges that need to be addressed before they become widely available, such as:
  • Ensuring consistent and reliable insulin delivery.
  • Developing patches that are comfortable to wear for extended periods.
  • Reducing the cost of patches.

Overall, insulin patches show promise as a new and potentially more convenient way to deliver insulin for people with diabetes. However, more research is needed to address the challenges and limitations before they become widely available.